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Bunions basics

What is a bunion?

A bunion is a “bump” on the joint at the base of the big toe—the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint—that forms when the bone or tissue at the big toe joint moves out of place. The toe is forced to bend toward the others, causing an often painful lump of bone on the foot. Because this joint carries a lot of the body's weight while walking, bunions can cause extreme pain if left untreated. The MTP joint itself may become stiff and sore, making even the wearing of shoes difficult or impossible. A bunion—from the Latin "bunio," meaning enlargement—can also occur on the outside of the foot along the little toe, where it is called a "bunionette" or "tailor's bunion".

Causes

Bunions form when the normal balance of forces that is exerted on the joints and tendons of the foot becomes disrupted. This disruption can lead to instability in the joint and cause the deformity. Bunions are brought about by years of abnormal motion and pressure over the MTP joint. They are, therefore, a symptom of faulty foot development and are usually caused by the way we walk and our inherited foot type or our shoes.

Although bunions tend to run in families, it is the foot type that is passed down—not the bunion. Parents who suffer from poor foot mechanics can pass their problematic foot type on to their children, who in turn are prone to developing bunions. The abnormal functioning caused by this faulty foot development can lead to pressure being exerted on and within the foot, often resulting in bone and joint deformities such as bunions and hammertoes.

Other causes of bunions are foot injuries, neuromuscular disorders, or congenital deformities. People who suffer from flat feet or low arches are also prone to developing these problems, as are arthritic patients and those with inflammatory joint disease. Occupations that place undue stress on the feet are also a factor; ballet dancers, for instance, often develop the condition.

Wearing shoes that are too tight or cause the toes to be squeezed together is also a common factor, one that explains the high prevalence of the disorder among women.

Symptoms

The symptoms of a bunion include the following:

  • Development of a firm bump on the outside edge of the foot, at the base of the big toe
  • Redness, swelling, or pain at or near the MTP joint
  • Corns or other irritations caused by the overlap of the first and second toes
  • Restricted or painful motion of the big toe
Home Treatment

What can you do for relief?

  • Apply a commercial, non-medicated bunion pad around the bony prominence
  • Wear shoes with a wide and deep toe box
  • If your bunion becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling
  • Avoid high-heeled shoes over two inches tall
When to Visit a Foot Specialist

If pain persists, podiatric medical attention should be sought. Bunions tend to get larger and more painful if left untreated, making non-surgical treatment less of an option.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Treatment options vary with the type and severity of each bunion, although identifying the deformity early in its development is important in avoiding surgery. The primary goal of most early treatment options is to relieve pressure on the bunion and halt the progression of the joint deformity.

We at Carolina Foot Specialists review with our patients detailed information regarding bunions during your visit. We will review your x-ray exam during your initial visit and outlined a conservative treatment plan to decrease your symptoms. Conservative tx options that we review are as follows:

Padding and Taping: Often the first step in a treatment plan, padding the bunion minimizes pain and allows the patient to continue a normal, active life. Taping helps keep the foot in a normal position, thus reducing stress and pain.

Medication: Anti-inflammatory drugs and cortisone injections are often prescribed to ease the acute pain and inflammation caused by joint deformities.

Physical Therapy: Often used to provide relief of the inflammation and bunion pain. Ultrasound therapy is a popular technique for treating bunions and their associated soft tissue involvement.

Orthotics: Shoe inserts may be useful in controlling foot function and may reduce symptoms and prevent worsening of the deformity.

If pain continues despite conservative treatment options we will also discuss in detail surgical treatment options. Dr. Saffer and Dr. Brown are board certified in foot surgery and the most common reconstructive surgery that we do is Bunion surgery.

Surgical Options: When early treatments fail or the bunion progresses past the threshold for such options, podiatric surgery may become necessary to relieve pressure and repair the toe joint. Several surgical procedures are available that we will discuss in detail. The goal of surgery will be to remove the bony enlargement, restore the normal alignment of the toe joint, and relieve pain.

A simple bunionectomy, in which only the bony prominence is removed, may be used for the less severe deformity. Severe bunions may require a more involved procedure, which includes cutting the bone and realigning the joint. Recuperation takes time, and swelling and some discomfort are common for several weeks following surgery. Pain, however, is easily managed with medications prescribed by our Foot Specialists.

Prevention

There are some steps that may help prevent, or at least slow, the progression of bunions:

  • Avoid shoes with a narrow toe box
  • If your foot flattens excessively, make sure you wear supportive shoes, and if necessary, custom orthotics can be utilized.
  • Please see our Foot Specialists at the first signs or symptoms of a bunion deformity, as early treatment may stop or slow its progression.

We have two locations in the Lowcountry. Dr. Brown is located at the West Ashley office and Dr. Saffer at the Mt. Pleasant location.

For more information on bunions and our custom bunion video please refer to our website at www.carolinafootspecialists.net

 

Our foot specialists at Carolina Foot Specialists see a larger number of patients who have bunion and tailor bunion deformities. We would like to ease your anxiety if you feel as if you have a bunion deformity and talk about how you get them as well as all conservative and surgical treatment options in the next few blogs this month.

Bunions are typically an inherited condition and is more often found in women. Bunions can become larger over time and become painful in tight shoe gear such as a high heel shoe. A bunion and a tailor bunion is a prominence on the inside of the foot (head of first metatarsal with great toe deviating in) and outside of the foot (fifth metatarsal head deviating out). A majority of our patients that we see have bunions but do not have pain. Half the battle is selecting proper shoe gear that has a wider toe box. Upon your first visit we will take digital x-rays to not the angular position of the bunion and discuss a conservative treatment plan to try to avoid surgery and slow the progression of the bunion.

If surgery is needed techniques have changed over the years which affords the patient to be weight bearing in a surgical shoe or boot following the surgery in most cases. Our foot specialists use internal screw fixation which allows patient to begin weight bearing right after surgery. The surgery is outpatient under local and IV sedation and takes about 45 minutes to an hour. Healing time is 6-8 weeks and patients are followed weekly during until the bone has healed. Detailed programs to resume light activity is reviewed with our patients. Bunion surgery would be the most common surgery that our foot specialists perform at Carolina Foot Specialists.

We have a nice video on our home page that discusses bunion surgery for your information.

Please contact our offices if you have bunions or tailor bunions. If the bunions are asyptomatic it may be good to at least get a baseline x-ray in order to evaluate the progression of the bunion in the future.

Look out for more blogs about Bunion surgery in the next few weeks.